Timeline of the Roman Christian Church

c.2100 BCE

Calling of Abraham - the Father of  the ancient Biblical Nation of Israel

c.2000 BCE

Birth of Jacob, later to be called Israel. The twelve tribes of Israel are named after Jacob's sons.

c.1900 BCE

Joseph is sold into slavery in Egypt. Israelites eventually become captives in the land.

c.1446 or 1290 BCE

The Exodus begins. Led by Moses, the Israelites leave Egypt and eventually settle in Canaan.

c.1010 BCE

David becomes king of Israel, making Jerusalem his capital.

c.970 BCE

David's son Solomon becomes king. He later builds a temple in Jerusalem to honor God.

c.930 BCE

Following Solomon's death, the Kingdom is divided into two sections: Northern (Israel) and Southern (Yahud).

753 BCE

Traditional date for the founding of Rome.

722 BCE

Fall of the kingdom of Israel to the Assyrians.

612 BCE

Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, falls to the Babylonians.

586 BCE

Babylonians take Jerusalem and destroy Solomon's temple. Yahudi nation is taken into captivity in Babylon (the exile).

538 BCE

Return of some of the exiles. Start of reconstruction of the temple.

512 BCE

Completion of the temple.

330 BCE

Conquest by Alexander the Great. Rise of Hellenism (Greek culture).

250 BCE

Work begins to translate the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek. This is known as the Septuagint or LXX.

63 BCE

Roman rule of Israel begins.

4 BCE

Birth of  Yahshua (aka Jesus)  in Bethlehem.

30 CE

Execution of Yahshua (aka Jesus) a Messiah for insurrection

33

Pentecost and the coming of the Holy breath (Acts 2).
Sometimes known as the Birthday of the Christian Church.

33

Stephen - First Christian martyr (Acts 7).

48

Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15).
Gentile Christians accepted alongside those in the Yahudi.

60

First Gospel may have been written (thought to be by Mark). ?

62

Martyrdom of James, "The Lord's Brother".

67-68

Apostles Peter and Paul* martyred in the reign of the Roman emperor Nero.

68-69

 

70

Approximate date of the book of Revelation written (by an unknown John)

 

Jewish rebellion against the Roman empire ends. Destruction of the temple in Jerusalem.

From 70

Centre of Christianity moves to Antioch, Alexandria and Rome.

 

144

 

A hearing took place before the clergy of the congregations in Rome. Marcion a Greek presents his Compiled Greek Testament, his theology and money to fund it, but it was rejected as having too many monstrous views by the presbyters. He was formally excommunicated – his money returned. A new Greek collection begins in earnest by the Roman Church, to replace Marcion’s collection.

161-180

Widespread persecution of Christians under Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.
(Severe persecutions also occurred under the emperors Decius (249-251) and Diocletian (284-305)).

301

Armenia becomes the world's first country to officially adopt a form of Christianity as the state religion.

312

Roman emperor Constantine receives a vision of a flaming cross with the words
'In hoc signo vinces' : 'By this sign conquer'. He Defeats rival Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge.

313

Edict of Milan issued by Constantine - Christianity becomes a legal religion within the Roman empire.

325

Constantine calls the first ecumenical council at Nicea. Arian heresy which declared Christ was a created being is refuted. The Nicene Creed is drawn up, declaring Christ to be "...Begotten, not made; and of one essence with the Father..."

331

 

367

Euebius arranges for scribes to produce 50 copies of the compiled work to date of the agreed  New Testimonie” writings, to be sent to Constantine. This is the first mention of “the New Christian Testament” in the historical records.  Saint Athanasius is the first to list all 27 New Testament books in his festal letter.

381

Ecumenical Council at Constantinople revises the Nicene creed to its current form.

382

Saint Jerome begins a translation of the Bible into Latin.

397

Synod at Carthage ratifies the 27 books of the Catholic New Testament as their sacred scripture.

431

An Ecumenical council is held at Ephesus that  refutes Nestorianism. The doctrine that Messiah (Christ) was two persons (one human, the other divine) - but in one body is established; Mary is declared Theotokos   i.e. 'a God-bearer' or more commonly, 'Mother of God'.

449

At Ephesus, Pope Leo I delivers his 'Tome', defending orthodox Christian belief. Leo also asserts Papal supremacy.

451

Ecumenical council at Chalcedon affirms Christ as having two distinct natures united in one person (known as the 'Hypostatic Union').

553

Ecumenical council at Constantinople affirms teaching of previous councils.

563

Columba establishes a monastery at Iona.

589

Insertion of the filioque  (Latin: 'and the son') into the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed at a council in Toledo.

597

Following a mission authorized by Pope Gregory I, St. Augustine becomes the first Archbishop of Canterbury.

664

Synod of Whitby ratifies the authority of the Pope in England.

680-81

Ecumenical council at Constantinople rejects Monothelite heresy of one will in Christ.

731

Bede writes his Ecclesiastical History.

787

Ecumenical council at Nicea ends the controversy over the use of  icons in worship.

800

Charlemagne is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III.

988

Conversion of Prince Vice Imir in Kiev. Growth of Christianity in Russia.

1054

Great Schism - Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholic churches separate.

1095

Pope Urban II authorizes the first CrusCEe to recover the Holy Land from Moslems.

1099

CrusCEers conquer Jerusalem.

1182

Massacre of Latin inhabitants of Constantinople.

1187

Jerusalem recaptured by a Moslem army led by Salin.

1189

Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionhearted of England.

1204

Sack of Constantinople during the fourth crusade.

1216/23

Papal approval of the Dominican and Franciscan mendicant ('begging') orders.

1266-73

Thomas Aquinas writes his great work of systematic Theology: Summa Theologiae.

1305

Papacy moved to Avignon following a dispute with Philip IV of France.

1341

Defense of Orthodox spirituality by Gregory Palamas. Rise of Hesychasm.

1376

John Wycliffe writes 'Civil Dominion', arguing for reform of the church.

1378

Following the return of the Papacy to Rome, rival claimants (Antipopes) emerge. Dispute ends in 1417 with election of Martin V.

1380

John Wycliffe translates the Bible into Middle English.

1453

Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks.

1517

Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses in Wittenberg, Germany; beginning the Protestant reformation.

1521

Diet of Worms - Luther's final breach with the Catholic church.

1525

William Tyndale completes his translation of the Bible into English.

1534

Ignatius of Loyola founds the Jesuits.

1534

Act of Supremacy passed - Henry VIII becomes supreme leader of the English church.

1536

John Calvin publishes his Institutes of the Christian Religion.

1545-63

Council of Trent - Roman Catholic counter reformation.

1549

Thomas Cranmer publishes the Book of Common Prayer in England (later revised in 1662).

1555

Peace of Augsburg ends religious wars in Germany.

1611

Publication of the King James Version of the Bible.

1618-48

Protestant/Catholic conflict in Germany (Thirty Years War).

1730-60

The 'Great Awakening' - A revival movement among Protestants in the USA.

1738

John and Charles Wesley converted. They lead an Evangelical revival in England and form the Methodist church.

1854

Dogma of the Immaculate conception of Mary proclaimed by the Roman Catholic church.

1870-1

First Vatican council. Dogma of Papal infallibility proclaimed.

1906

Azusa street revival in Los Angeles. Beginnings of the Pentecostal movement.

1910

World mission conference held in Edinburgh.

1918

Billy Graham born. Later becomes one of the most prominent evangelists in Christian history.

1948

Formation of the World Council of Churches.

1950

Dogma of the Assumption of Mary proclaimed by the Roman Catholic Church.

1962-5

Second Vatican council. Major reforms in the Roman Catholic church are initiated.
Mutual anathemas of 1054 between Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches lifted.

1997

Death of Mother Teresa of Calcutta - founder of the 'Missionaries of Charity'.

1999

Signing of the Joint Declaration on Justification by the Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches.

2005

Death of Pope John Paul II, who is succeeded by Pope Benedict XVI.

2006

World Methodist Council CE opts the Lutheran/Catholic Joint Declaration on Justification.

2011

Beatification of Pope John Paul II.

2013

Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI, who is succeeded by Pope Francis.